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Saturday, November 1, 2014

Apple Copies Your Files Without Your Knowledge or Consent

The latest version of Apple's OS automatically syncs your files to iCloud Drive, even files you choose to store locally. Apple encrypts your data, both in transit and in iCloud, with a key it knows. Apple, of course, complies with all government requests: FBI warrants, subpoenas, and National Security Letters -- as well as NSA PRISM and whatever-else-they-have demands.

This is a more nuanced discussion of this issue. At this point, it seems clear that there is a lot less here than described in the blog post below.
 There is something here. It only affects unsaved documents, and not all applications. But the OS's main text editor is one of them. Yes, this feature has been in the OS for a while, but that's not a defense. It's both dangerous and poorly documented.

 Attack Against Credit Card Verification

Here's a physical attack against a credit card verification system. Basically, the attack disrupts the communications between the retail terminal and the system that identifies revoked credit cards. Since retailers generally default to accepting cards when the system doesn't work, the attack is generally successful.

Spritz:  RC4 Cipher

Last week, Ron Rivest gave a talk at MIT about Spritz, a new stream cipher by him and Jacob Schuldt. It's basically a redesign of RC4, given current cryptographic tools and knowledge.
RC4 is an example of what I think of as a too-good-to-be-true cipher. It looks so simple. It is so simple. In classic cryptographic terms, it's a single rotor machine. It's a single self-modifying rotor, but it modifies itself very slowly. Even so, it's very hard to cryptanalyze. Even though the single rotor leaks information about its internal state with every output byte, its self-modifying structure always seems to stay ahead of analysis. But RC4 been around for over 25 years, and the best attacks are at the edge of practicality.
Spritz is Rivest and Schuldt's redesign of RC4. It retains all of the problems that RC4 had. It's built on a 256-element array of bytes, making it less than ideal for modern 32-bit and 64-bit CPUs. It's not very fast. (It's 50% slower than RC4, which was already much slower than algorithms like AES and Threefish.) It has a long key setup. But it's a very clever design.
Here are the cores of RC4 and Spritz:
1: i = i + 1
2: j = j + S[i]
3: SWAP(S[i];S[j])
4: z = S[S[i] + S[j]]
5: Return z
1: i = i + w
2: j = k + S[j + S[i]]
2a: k = i + k + S[j]
3: SWAP(S[i];S[j])
4: z = S[j + S[i + S[z + k]]]
5: Return z
S is an 8-bit permutation. In theory, it can be any size, which is nice for analysis, but in practice, it's a 256-element array. RC4 has two pointers into the array: i and j. Spritz adds a third: k. The parameter w is basically a constant. It's always 1 in RC4, but can be any odd number in Spritz (odd because that means it's always relatively prime to 256). In both ciphers, i slowly walks around the array, and j -- or j and k -- bounce around wildly. Both have a single swap of two elements of the array. And both produce an output byte, z, a function of all the other parameters. In Spritz, the previous z is part of the calculation of the current z.
That's the core. There are also functions for turning the key into the initial array permutation, using this as a stream cipher, using it as a hash function, and so on. It's basically a sponge function, so it has a lot of applications.
What's really interesting here is the way Rivest and Schuldt chose their various functions. They basically tried them all (given some constraints), and chose the ones with the best security properties. This is the sort of thing that can only be done with massive computing power.
I have always really liked RC4, and am happy to see a 21st-century redesign. I don't know what kind of use it'll get with its 8-bit word size, but surely there's a niche for it somewhere.

Handling The Risk of Ebola

Good essay.
Worry about Ebola (or anything) manifests physically as what's known as a fight, flight, or freeze response. Biological systems ramp up or down to focus the body's resources on the threat at hand. Heart rate and blood pressure increase, immune function is suppressed (after an initial burst), brain chemistry changes, and the normal functioning of the digestive system is interrupted, among other effects. Like fear itself, these changes are protective in the short term. But when they persist, the changes prompted by chronic stress -- defined as stress beyond the normal hassles of life, lasting at least one to two weeks -- are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (the leading cause of death in America); increased likelihood and severity of clinical depression (suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in America); depressed memory formation and recall; impaired fertility; reduced bone growth; and gastrointestinal disorders.
Perhaps most insidious of all, by suppressing our immune systems, chronic stress makes us more likely to catch infectious diseases, or suffer more­ -- or die­ -- from diseases that a healthy immune system would be better able to control. The fear of Ebola may well have an impact on the breadth and severity of how many people get sick, or die, from influenza this flu season. (The CDC reports that, either directly or indirectly, influenza kills between 3,000 and 49,000 people per year.)
There is no question that America's physical, economic, and social health is far more at risk from the fear of Ebola than from the virus itself.
The State of Louisiana is prohibiting researchers who have recently been to Ebola-infected countries from attending a conference on tropical medicine. So now we're at a point where our fear of Ebola is inhibiting scientific research into treating and curing Ebola.

Enigma enciphering/deciphering machine was patented in Holland

Good article, with pictures, diagrams, and code.

Spyware Sold to Despots and Cops Worldwide

The Intercept has published the complete manuals for Hacking Team's attack software. This follows a detailed report on Hacking Team's products from August. Hacking Team sells computer and cell phone hacking capabilities to the governments of Azerbaijan, Colombia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, Oman, Panama, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Thailand, Turkey, UAE, and Uzbekistan... and probably others as well.
This is important. The NSA's capabilities are not unique to the NSA. They're not even unique to countries like the US, UK, China, Russia, France, Germany, and Israel. They're available for purchase by any totalitarian country that wants to spy on foreign governments or its own citizens. By ensuring an insecure Internet for everyone, the NSA enables companies like Hacking Team to thrive.

Sunday, October 19, 2014

NSA CTO Patrick Dowd Moonlighting For Private Security Firm

Current NSA CTO Patrick Dowd has taken a part-time position with former-NSA director Keith Alexander's security firm IronNet Cybersecurity — while retaining his position as chief technology officer for the NSA. The Guardian states that 'Patrick Dowd continues to work as a senior NSA official while also working part time for Alexander's IronNet Cybersecurity, a firm reported to charge up to $1m a month for advising banks on protecting their data from hackers. It is exceedingly rare for a US official to be allowed to work for a private, for-profit company in a field intimately related to his or her public function.' Some may give Alexander a pass on the possible conflict of interests as he's now retired, but what about a current NSA official moonlighting for a private security firm?